Galician language on the Camino

Galician language on the Camino

We’re not going to learn Spanish today. Instead, I’m going to tell you about the Galician language. More specifically, I’m telling you about the Galician language you’re more likely to see on the Camino de Santiago.

 

Yes. I know this page is called Spanish for the Camino and (almost) every post includes a few Spanish words or phrases you can use on the Camino, or elsewhere in the Spanish-speaking world. But Spanish is not the only language spoken in Spain. It’s not the only language you’ll encounter on the Camino either, as we discussed in previous posts.

For instance, you will come across Basque as you walk through País Vasco and Navarra. Oihana teaches us some basic words in this post.

 

Also, once you enter Galicia you’ll start seeing and hearing galego (Galician). Rest assured. Everyone can and will speak Spanish. But it can be nice and even helpful at times to be familiar with some common words you’re likely to see often.

 

I wrote another post about the Galician language before. In it, I gave you a very summarised history of the language, and your first basic words (greetings, please, thank you…). You can read that post here.

In this post, I thought I’d focus on things you will see around you, like names of towns or signs.

 

But first, let me give you some more background, so you understand the sometimes difficult linguistic situation we have over here.

 

Some more history of Galician

As I told you in a previous post, Galician was banished from public life in the 15th century, and it remained so until the 19th century. During this period, the upper classes spoke Spanish, while Galician remained the language of the lower classes. Add to this the fact that Galicia became impoverished during this time and many had to emigrate. In many cases, these people were ridiculed and made fun of because of their language.

 

These 2 facts contributed to create the belief, that many still hold today, that Galician is an inferior language, that if you want to do well in life, you must speak Spanish and not Galician. This explains why during that period many names of towns (and family names too) were changed to make them sound more Spanish.

 

Today, the official name of every Galician town is in galego, but there are still remnants of those old beliefs. To use an exampled I’ve mentioned before, Fisterra is the official name of the town where many end their Camino, but you’re likely to see Finisterre too.

 

Not every town has 2 names, but there are several well-known Camino towns where this happens. Wikipedia, for instance, tends to favour the Spanish name. Certain apps will only display the Spanish name too.

 

Muxía is an example of this. The Spanish-sounding version is becoming less and less common, but you may still see Mugía in places. Melide may sometimes appear as Mellid and Tui is still frequently spelled as Tuy (no change of pronunciation in this case).

 

Galician on the Camino

The use of galego varies across the region, so how much of it you see or hear will depend on where you are. But there are common words you’re likely to see.

Rúa (calle in Spanish): street

Praza (plaza in Spanish): square

Igrexa (iglesia in Spanish): church

Mosteiro (monasterio in Spanish): monastery

Concello (ayuntamiento in Spanish): town council

Castelo (castillo in Spanish)

 

Galician language
Calle Peregrina Pontevedra

What is your experience? Has this ever caused confusion for you? Share your anecdotes!

 

Today’s words

For the pronunciation of calle, iglesia and monasterio, check Camino Inglés: de Ferrol a Neda.

For the pronunciation of plaza, check Santiago de Compostela.

For the pronunciation of castillo, check Finisterre.

 

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Holy Year 2021

Holy Year 2021

Año Santo. Holy Year. How many times have you heard these 2 words in recents weeks? Months even?

2021 is a Holy Year. People have been talking about it for months, either planning their Camino to coincide with it or postponing it for a “regular” year. Then, on December 31, we learned that the Holy Year will be extended until the end of 2022. But do you know what that means? And more importantly, how does that affect the Camino de Santiago?

Next, I’ll try to explain a few basic ideas regarding the Holy Year. And, as usual, you’ll be able to learn some Spanish vocabulary. Let’s start from the beginning. 

 

What is a Holy Year?

Un Año Santo or Jubileo (Jubilee) is a special year in the Catholic Church. During these special years, an indulgence (indulgencia) is granted to those who fulfill certain criteria.

To differentiate it from other Holy Years, the one in Santiago can be referred to as jacobeo (of St. James) or compostelano (from Compostela). You may also see the Galician word Xacobeo to refer to it.

We have an Año Santo Jacobeo or Año Santo Compostelano when July 25, feast of St. James, falls on a Sunday. So, we have a Holy Year in Santiago every 6 (seis), 5 (cinco), 6 and 11 (once) years. The last Holy Year before 2021 was in 2010.

Some sources date the first Año Santo Compostelano in the 12th century but research has shown this to be false. The first documented Holy Year took place in 1424.

 

El Jubileo

In order to obtain the Jubilee or indulgence during Holy Years you must:

  • visit the tomb of St. James and say a prayer for the Pope.
  • confess, 15 days before or after your visit to Santiago.
  • receive holy communion

 

It’s worth noting that getting a jubilee and a compostela are not connected. To get a compostela, you must walk at least the last 100km of any Camino. This will not grant your indulgence. For that, you must fulfill the requirements listed above. And you can travel to Santiago by any means.

In other words, you could drive up to Santiago, visit the tomb of the Apostle, say your prayers and receive confession and communion. You would be receiving the jubileo. But not a compostela. On the other hand, you could walk over 100km to Santiago and not do any of the others things. You could then claim your compostela, but wouldn’t be earning the indulgence.

Music, poetry, history… to celebrate the beginning of the Holy Year 2021

La Puerta Santa

To mark the beginning of a Holy Year, a special ceremony performed by the Archbishop takes place in the cathedral. This happens in the evening of December 31. During this ceremony, the Holy Door or Puerta Santa is opened.

In case you’re wondering what’s so special about a door being opened: the Puerta Santa only gets opened during Holy Years. The rest of the time, it remains closed. At the end of a Holy Year, a new ceremony takes place to close the door again. It will remain closed until the following Año Santo. So, before 2021, the last time people were able to access the cathedral through the Holy Door was in 2010.

During this year’s opening ceremony, a representative of the Pope announced the extension of this Holy Year until the end of 2022. This is due to the special circumstances brought about by the pandemic. The only time a Holy Year was extended before was in 1937-1938 due to the Spanish Civil War.

Access to the Puerta Santa is from Plaza de la Quintana.

 

What about the Camino?

It’s hard to predict what this Holy Year will be like. At the moment, travelling is not an option. Not only for international pilgrims but for those of us who live locally too. As I write this, I can’t go to Santiago. And I live less than 100km away. Both my town and Santiago have perimeter lockdowns in place. That means we can’t get in or out, unless we have a valid reason such as work or a medical appointment.There’s also a perimeter lockdown on the whole region of Galicia until the end of this month of January. The region of Castilla y León has a perimeter lockdown too… until May 9.

In summary, there are perimeter lockdowns both at regional and local level, which means you could be fined if you get caught getting in or out of one of these areas without a valid reason. And doing the Camino is not considered a valid reason.

Under normal circumstances, Holy Years are very busy on the Camino. The number of pilgrims tends to increase quite dramatically. To give you an idea, the Holy Year of 2010 saw an 85% increase in the number of pilgrims collecting their compostela, compared to the previous year. If you’re looking for a quite Camino, Holy Years are not a good idea. If, on the other hand, you don’t mind the crowds, and entering through the Holy Door holds a special significance for you, then go for it! What type are you?

In any case, we’ll have to wait for the current circumstances to change before we can go back to the Camino.

A summary of this year’s opening ceremony

Game of the goose

Game of the goose

Have you heard of the Game of the Goose?

The Game of the Goose is a board game I used to play as a child… and now play again with my kids.

And how is this relevant to the Camino, you may ask?

In this guest post, Vickie Kelty tells us about the benefits of introducing board or card games on our Caminos. Games can also be a way to keep the Camino feeling alive while you can’t travel. And, of course, they’re a fun way to practice and improve your Spanish.

But apart from all of that, which is valid for any game, really, there’s more.

The Game of the Goose or La Oca, as we call it in Spanish, is an ancient game. It’s origins are not totally clear, but one theory links it to the Camino de Santiago. According to it, this game was created by the Templars in the 12th century; and it was not a game originally, but  an encrypted map of the Camino.

 

Who are the Templars?

But who are these Templars and why would they create an encrypted map of the Camino?

There are many myths and legends around the Templars, so I won’t go into detail but the Knights Templar (or simply Templars, or Templarios in Spanish) were a Catholic military order founded in the early 12th century. They were active for around 200 years, until they were suppressed by Pope Clement V. The Templars were closely tied to the Crusades and one of their duties was to protect pilgrims going to Jerusalem.

To cut a long story short, the order grew rapidly and extended to several countries, including what we today know as Spain.

In Spain, they took part in the Reconquista (reconquest). Many of the territories being reconquered were located along the Camino, so the Templars contributed to the safety of pilgrims going to Santiago de Compostela too.

Different sources differ about the extent of the Templars’ presence and influence on the Camino (there were other orders too and things sometimes get blurry). But we do know  for sure there’s a Templar castle in Ponferrada.

Castillo templario de Ponferrada

Templars’ castle in Ponferrada

Why a goose? 

Geese were considered sacred animals from ancient times and they would alert you in case of intruders. Also, only the nobility was allowed to raise geese so, if pilgrims saw a flock of geese they knew they were near a noble household, possibly a safe place.

A lot has been written about the goose references along the Camino. That seems to support the links between the Camino and the game of the goose. We can find examples of these references in the names of many places, such as Montes de Oca, Puerto de Oca, Castrojeriz (which means city of geese) or Manjarín (meaning man of geese). Other references would be builders marks in the shape of a goose leg, found on churches; and even the cross in Puente La Reina’s church of the Crucifix (also in the shape of a goose leg).  

The Game of the Goose

But going back to the game, La Oca would be an encrypted map of the Camino. In those times, most people couldn’t  read, so each casilla* (square) had pictures. The symbols on each casilla would make reference to signs that had been placed along the Camino. Pilgrims would be told what each picture represented. On casilla 6, for instance, you’ll find un puente (a bridge), which allegedly represents Puente La Reina.

The casillas with ocas (geese) on them would represent safe places. Not everybody uses the exact same rules; there are some variations. But this one doesn’t change: if you fall on a goose, you advance to the next one and roll your dice again, saying “de oca a oca y tiro porque me toca”, which roughly translates as “from goose to goose and I roll the dice because it’s my turn”… Sorry, it doesn’t rhyme in English!

There’s a second bridge on casilla 12. If you fall on either of the bridges, you move to the other one and roll your dice again saying “de puente a puente y tiro porque me lleva la corriente” (from bridge to bridge and I roll the dice because the flow carries me).

 

    How many places on the Camino Francés can you recognise?

    There are also other special casillas like:   

    • El pozo (well). The well symbolises depression. If you fall here, you miss a turn and you can only get out with the help of another player.  
    • El laberinto (labyrinth). This symbolises getting lost, which was quite easy during the Middle Ages, since paths were not clearly marked as they are today (and of course, GPS was not a thing either). If you fall here, you go back to casilla 30.  
    • La cárcel (jail) y la posada (inn). Both places represent the necessary rest you need in order to complete your pilgrimage. If you get into jail, you miss 3 turns but you only miss one of you stay at the inn.  
    • La muerte (death). It doesn’t have to represent literal, physical death, although death does happen sometimes on the Camino (and I’m sure it was much more common in medieval times). The Camino is a life-changing experience for many, so death could also be a metaphor for new beginnings.    
    • Los dados (dice). They represent luck, which can be good or bad. There are 2 casillas with dados on them: numbers 26 and 53. There are rule variations for these; the one I’ve always used is this: if you fall on one of them, you have to move to the other one, which means sometimes you’ll be moving forward and sometimes you’ll be going backwards. 

     

    Game of the goose pozo

    El pozo

    Game of the goose laberinto

    El laberinto

    Game of the goose muerte

    La muerte

    So, will you give La Oca a go? 

     

    Today’s Spanish words and phrases

    De puente a puente y tiro porque me lleva la corriente

    *Casilla means square in the context of board games. Other meanings of the English word square are expressed by different Spanish words.

     

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    Games and the Camino

    Games and the Camino

    Have you ever played any games on the Camino? Have you even considered it?

    I had a lovely evening on the Camino Inglés last year, playing cards. It was fun, but it was also an opportunity to bond and, of course, to learn about Spanish culture and language.

    So, if you hadn’t thought about it, please think again and keep reading.

    In this guest post, Vickie Kelty tells us about the benefits of games and how you can incorporate them in your Camino… and in your life after the Camino.

    Over to Vickie!Flecha azul

     

    I know you have a lot of things to pack for the Camino and you want to keep it as light as possible, but I have one request: please don’t forget to pack a game (juego).

    Now, obviously you aren’t going to put a big board game like Clue or Monopoly in your backpack! I’ll bet a deck of cards (baraja), some dice (dados), or a tiny travel size game would fit though, wouldn’t it?

     

    First, why you’ll wish you brought a game on the Camino

    1. Relaxation! After a long day walking the Camino playing a game is just one way to chill out and start getting to know other pilgrims. Read about what it’s like walking with strangers in this post
    2. You can play them anywhere! It isn’t necessary to wait for a table to play a round of cards, just sit right down on the ground and play.
    3. No time limit. You decide how long to play, so don’t worry about time. It’s not necessary to keep score or finish the entire game. Sometimes just one hand of cards is a nice way to unwind after a long day of walking or travel.
    4. Forget language barriers. Playing a game is a great way to take the Spanish you know and the English or other language the other person knows and use it to play a game together. Be prepared for laughter and fun to ensue! 

     

    What Spanish games can I learn before I do the Camino?

    Keep in mind, the games I’m about to mention are suggested based only on my own personal experiences living in Spain and in the U.S. So, please take that into account if there’s a game mentioned that you’ve never heard of or isn’t popular where you’re from.

    I also invite you to research any games you don’t know, perhaps they’ll become your next favorite game!

    Let’s start with board games. 

    Games and the Camino Parchís
    If you know the game Sorry!, which I grew up playing in Nebraska, then Parchís will look familiar to you. I found a cool magnetic travel size version called Ludo (this game goes by many names!) at a dollar store and I often bring it with me on vacation. In fact, it proved entertaining while on a road trip with my parents one summer, even though my mom always beat me.

    Perhaps you’ve heard of this next game too, The Game of the Goose or La Oca. This one I hadn’t played before coming to Spain and I can’t wait to play it with my family the next time they visit. Even though I don’t have the travel size version I did see one available online. It’s like a game I grew up playing called Chutes and Ladders in that you never know if you’re going to land on a good or bad square next!

    Games and the Camino La Oca
    By the way, both of these board games have special Camino versions available – though perhaps not in the travel size – and they could make for nice souvenirs! So even if you don’t play them on the Camino you can play them when you get home and share your experience with others.

     

    Although board games are nice, nothing beats a good old-fashioned card game.

    While there are many popular Spanish card games, I suggest checking out Brisca, which can be played in pairs, and another game called Chinchón, which is similar to Rummy.

    It might also be fun to buy a Spanish deck of cards to play with! Another nice souvenir – and this one will easily fit in your backpack.

    Obviously, there are many more Spanish card and board games, but these are the ones I’ve played the most and found easiest to learn.

     

    If you’re like me, you want to share your culture too!

    Think about some easy games you can share with other pilgrims. I’ll share two of my examples. A couple easy to teach card games that I played growing up are now my favorite games to teach others when I travel. They’re Old Maid and Go Fish.

    Although I have special cards (cartas) for them, I don’t travel with those. I just carry a standard 52-card deck that I can play both games with. A little secret for Old Maid, I simply leave one joker in the deck and call that the Old Maid. (I know some people will remove three Queens so there’s only one Queen. Do what works for you).

    Another card game I’m obsessed with is UNO! I’ve been delighted to find out that it was recognized by most of my Spanish friends when I’ve brought it out to play. Although I was surprised to find out that their rules are slightly different than the ones we played with in my family. Sometimes we play with my rules, sometimes with theirs. It’s fun to change it up!

    Honestly, for me, UNO is one of the best games to travel with because the rules are easy to follow (even if they differ slightly from country to country) and the vocabulary you need to play is quite basic. Besides, when you don’t know the words gestures go a long way! Read about how UNO saved the day when I was in Costa Rica.

    By the way, if you don’t want to play cards, even carrying five dice and playing a version of Yahtzee can easily be done. The game options are endless!

     

    Just remember, whatever game you choose to bring, it’s worth it for the memories you’ll make.

    What game will you bring on the Camino?

     

    Today’s Spanish words

     

    Vicky Kelty

    Vickie Kelty is an English speaking skills teacher originally from Nebraska, USA. She specializes in using games to help English language learners speak with ease and enjoyment. You can find her at vickiekelty.com or follow her @vickiekelty on IG where she posts regularly.

     

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    Topics you should avoid

    Topics you should avoid

    Topics you should avoid |

    You’ve been dreaming for ages about walking the Camino. You’ve planned,  packed, trained… and you’re finally in Spain. Of course, you want to make the most of this amazing experience and hope that the time spent in Spain will go as smoothly as possible.

     

    That can include a wide range of things, such as your flights not being delayed, not suffering any injuries or ampollas (blisters) and making meaningful connections with both fellow peregrinos and locals.

     

    Some of these things are beyond your control, so we’ll not discuss them now. Others, however, you have power over.

     

    It’s surprising how different things can be in another country, even one that is in theory close to ours: you say or do something that is perfectly OK in your homeland, and all of a sudden you can sense the mood changing. For the worse.

     

    So, what should you do?

    In order to minimise potential problems or awkward situations with Spaniards, there are certain behaviours and topics you’d better avoid.

     

    Don’t criticise

    As mentioned in this previous post, avoid criticising our customs; whether it’s mealtimes, siesta, bullfighting or something else. We may privately agree with you. But the fact that you, a foreigner, just came into our country and “have the nerve” to tell us how we should be doing things will not be welcome.

     

    I mean, you wouldn’t like it if we went to your country and told you how to run it, would you?

     

    Topics you should avoid

    You should tread carefully if discussing política (politics) and religión (religion). In fact, my advice would be to stay away from those 2 as much as possible.

     

    Politics is maybe an obvious subject to avoid. People can be very passionate about their political ideas and things can easily get heated when we don’t agree.

     

    And I’m not just talking about current affair issues like the latest election results or the independence of Cataluña (Catalonia). Other “older” topics like the Spanish Civil War can also be very touchy and nobody will appreciate you, a foreigner, sharing your thoughts about it and “coming to teach us lessons”. That’s how most Spaniards would see it and that’s also one of the most polite replies you will get. So, stay away from it.

     

    Oh! And please don’t even suggest that the Catalan, Basque and Galician languages are dialects, especially if you are talking to someone from one of those regions! They ARE languages and, in fact, they are co-official with Spanish in their respective territories. It really upsets many of us when you call them dialects.

     

    Religion, on the other hand, is considered a private matter in Spain. You don’t ask someone you just met about their religious beliefs or practices. Of course, some walk the Camino for religious reasons, but some others don’t. So, unless they bring it up, I would also stay away from it. You’re just going to make people uncomfortable if you ask.

     

    Bursting stereotypes

    While I’m on this topic, I’d like to clarify some common misconceptions people tend to have about Spain and religion.

    • First of all, Spain has no official religion. After Franco’s dictatorship, Catholicism was abolished as the country’s official religion. Our current Constitution, adopted in 1978, establishes the right to religious freedom.

     

    • Secondly, Spain is not a deeply Catholic country, at least not in the way many foreigners think it is. According to the latest surveys, 2 thirds of Spaniards consider themselves Catholic, but only 22% of them attend church on a regular basis. Almost 30% of Spaniards identify as atheist, agnostic or non-believers.

     

    You should avoid this, too

    Before we finish for today, let me give you one final tip:

     

    Please, don’t tell us we have a lisp because of some king or another a few centuries ago!

     

    It’s not true; actually, it’s quite a ludicrous theory and all it shows is that you don’t know what a lisp is.

     

    A lisp is a speech disorder characterised by  the inability to correctly pronounce the S sounds. People with a lisp typically pronounce S sounds as TH.

     

    In Spain, there is a difference in pronunciation (and meaning) between the words seta (mushroom) and zeta (the letter z), or cocer (to boil) and coser (to sew), just to mention a couple of examples. Just the same way that an English speaker pronounces sink & think differently. So, if we have a lisp, I guess you do, too!

    You’ve been warned. Now you know what topics you should avoid, so it’s up to you to stay out of trouble.

     

    Today’s words

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    ¡Buen Camino!

    5 things you need to know about Spain

    5 things you need to know about Spain

    When you travel to a foreign country it’s easy to make mistakes because we don’t know how things work over there. It’s easy to assume that everybody does things the same way we do and this can lead to difficult or embarrassing situations.

    So, what are the things you need to know about Spain? There are more, but let’s start with these 5:

    1. It’s not siesta time!

    I read a lot of comments about siesta in Camino forums: 

    “Everything was closed because it was siesta time” 

    “There were no people on the streets because it was siesta time” 

    It’s almost like anything unfamiliar you experience gets blamed on the siesta. Sorry to burst your stereotypes but… siesta is not really a thing in Spain. At least not the way you think it is. If you go to a shop at 3:00 or 4:00pm and it’s closed it is not because it’s siesta time. It’s because it’s lunch time. 

    Yes. Lunch time. But that’s way more than the usual one hour lunch break, you may say. Well, lunch in Spain is the main meal of the day, quite often a 3-course meal. So, one hour is not enough. Also, traditionally, people would go home for lunch. Not everybody can do that these days, especially in the bigger cities, but many people still do. For more details about eating times, go to nº2.

    And if you go for a walk around town at 6:00 or 7:00pm in the summertime and the place is deserted, it’s not siesta time. People could be either at the beach or pool or simply at home, staying away from el calor (the heat).

    We don’t put our pyjamas on, get into bed and sleep for 2 or 3 hours in the middle of the day, as many foreigners seem to think. Most of us don’t even take siestas at all. Those who do, it’s mostly a 10-15 minute nap on the sofa. So, por favor, if you find shops closed or streets empty, don’t blame it on the siesta. 

    2. Don’t criticise our meal times. Try to adapt to them instead.

    As I already mentioned, lunch is the main meal of the day, quite often a 3-course meal. It is usually served between 1:30 and 3:30 or 4:00pm.

    You’ll have trouble finding dinner  before 8:30pm. 

    The picture shows average kitchen hours, although they may very from place to place.

    Instead of complaining because dinner is too late, why don’t you try the Spanish way? Have lunch when you get to your destination for the day; shower, rest and and then you can have something light for dinner, like a drink and a tapa or two.

    3. Avoid criticising Spanish customs, even those that we, Spaniards, criticise. 

    This is like family: you may complain about them but when an outsider criticises them, you feel compelled to defend them. Same thing here: I may disagree with that particular custom but if you, an outsider, criticise it, I may feel forced to defend it. How would you feel if we went to your country and started criticising what you do?

    “Why do you not have a proper 3-course meal for lunch?”

    “Oh, so you don’t eat tortilla de patatas? That’s weird!”

    “Shops close at 6:00pm? Ridiculous!”

    Not nice, right? For me, one of the beauties of travelling is to get to see and experience different things, eat different foods… Embrace the difference and enjoy it!

     

    4. Manners, please!

    Don’t go over the top with your gracias and por favor. I’m not suggesting you shouldn’t use those words, but we don’t use them half as much as in other cultures. Once or twice per conversation is fine. More than that is too much and you’re going to make the other person uncomfortable. This doesn’t mean we’re rude or don’t have manners. We just express it in different ways.

    5. Yes, I’m greeting you.

    We might not say please and thank you as much as you do, but we probably greet each other more, even total strangers: you go into a shop, you greet the shop assistant; go into a doctor’s waiting room, you greet the people who are already there; get into a lift with strangers, you greet them.

    A simple hola is fine or, depending on the time of the day, you can also add buenos días (in the morning, until lunch time -Spanish lunch time), buenas tardes (in the evening) or buenas noches (later in the evening, from 9:00pm roughly).

     

    These are just 5 basic things you need to know before you travel to Spain. There are more, especially around food, but they would make this post too long and we’ll leave them for another occasion. If, on the other hand, you would like to know whether it’s OK or not to tip and how much is appropriate, you can check this post.

     

     

    Today’s words

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